Selected Readings on Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies


Books and book chapters

Abou El Fadl, Khaled. Islam and the Challenge of Democracy (Princeton Univ. Press, 2004).

Abou El Fadl, Khaled. The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists (Harper: San Francisco, 2005).

Abrahamian, Ervand. Khomeinism: essays on the Islamic Republic (University of California Press, 1993).

Abu-Rabi, Ibrahim M. The contemporary Arab reader on political Islam (University of Alberta Press, 2010).

Achcar, Gilbert. The People Want: A Radical Exploration of the Arab Spring (Berkley: University of Californian Press, 2013).

Afkhami, Mahnaz. Faith and Freedom: Women’s Human Rights in the Muslim World (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1995).

Ahmed, Leila. “Women and the Rise of Islam‎.” The New Voices of Islam: Rethinking Politics and Modernity-A Reader. Ed. Mehran Kamrava (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. 177-199).

Ahmed, Leila. Women and gender in Islam: Historical roots of a modern debate (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992).

Akhavi, Shahrough. The Middle East: the politics of the sacred and secular (Zed Books, 2009).

Al-Azam, Sadik J. “Is Islam Secularizable?.” Elisabeth Ozdalga and Sune Persson. Eds. Elisabeth Ozdalga and Sune Persson (Istanbul: Swedish Research Institute, 1997).

Al-Azam, Sadik J. Critique of Religious Thought (Saqi Books, 2013).

Al-Azmeh, Aziz. Islams and Modernities (London: Verso, 1993).

Ali, Tariq. The clash of fundamentalisms: Crusades, jihads and modernity (New York: Verso, 2003).

An-Na’im Na, Abdullahi Ahmed. Islam and the secular state: Negotiating the future of Sharia (Harvard University Press, 2009).

An-Na’im Na, Abdullahi Ahmed.  Toward an Islamic reformation: civil liberties, human rights, and international law (Syracuse University Press, 1996).

Arkoun, Mohammed. “Present-Day Islam between Its Tradition and Globalization.” The New Voices of Islam: Rethinking Politics and Modernity-A Reader. Ed. Mehran Kamrava (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. 29-63).

Arkoun, Mohammed. The Unthought in Contemporary Islamic Thought (London: Saqi Books, 2002).

Armstrong, Karen. Islam: A Short History (New York: Modern Library, 2007).

Aslan, Reza. No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam (Random House, 2011).

Bayat, Asef. Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East, 2nd Ed. (Stanford University Press, 2013).

Bayat, Asef, ed. Post-Islamism: The Many Faces of Political Islam (OUP USA, 2013).

Bayat, Asef. Islam and democracy: What is the real question? Vol. 8.  (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2007).

Beinin, Joel and Vairel, Frédéric. eds. Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa (Stanford University Press, 2011).

Beinin, Joel, and Joe Stork. Political Islam: Essays from Middle East Report (IB Tauris, 1997).

Berger, Peter L. “Secularism in Retreat.” Islam and secularism in the Middle East. Eds. John Esposito and Azzam Tamimi. (London: C. Hurst & Co., 2000. 38-51).

Bhargava, Rajeev. Secularism and its Critics (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Boroujerdi, Mehrzad. “Can Islam be Secularized?.” Transition: Essays on Culture and Identity in the Middle Eastern Society. Eds. M.R. Ghanoonparvar and Faridoun Farrokh. (Laredo, TX: Texas A&M International University, 1994. 55-64).

Bowering, Gerhard, ed. Islamic Political Thought: An Introduction (Princeton University Press, 2015).

Brown, L. Carl. Religion and State: The Muslim Approach to Politics (Columbia University Press, 2013).

Buck-Morss, Susan. Thinking Past Terror: Islamism and Critical Theory on the Left (London; New York: Verso, 2003).

Bulliet, Richard W. “Religion and State in Islam: From Medieval Caliphate to the Muslim Brotherhood.” Occasional Paper Series. No 2. (Colorado: University of Denver, 2011). <>

Casanova, José. Public Religions in the Modern World (University of Chicago Press, 2011).

Chittick, William, ed. The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr (World Wisdom, 2007).

Cole, June. The New Arabs: How the Millennial Generation is Changed the Middle East (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014).

Cronin, Stephanie. ed. Subalterns and Social Protest: History from Below in the Middle East and North Africa (Routledge, 2011).

Dabashi, Hamid. Can Non-Europeans Think? (ZED BOOKS Limited, 2015).

Dabashi, Hamid. The Arab Spring: The End of Postcolonialism (Zed Books, 2012).

Dabashi, Hamid. Post-Orientalism: Knowledge and Power in a Time of Terror (Transaction Publishers, 2011).

Dabashi, Hamid. Iran, The Green Movement and the USA: The Fox and the Paradox (UK: Zed Books, 2010).

Dabashi, Hamid. Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Republic in Iran (New York: NYU Press, 1993).

Diamond, Larry Jay, Marc F. Plattner, and Daniel Brumberg, eds. Islam and Democracy in the Middle East (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003).

Enayat, Hamid. Modern Islamic Political Thought (London: IB Tauris, 2005).

Esposito, John L. “Islam and Secularism in the Twenty-First Century.” Islam and Secularism in the Middle East. Eds. John Esposito and Azzam Tamimi. (London: C. Hurst & Co., 2000. 1-12).

Esposito, John L. and O. Voll, John. Islam and Democracy (New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966).

Esposito, John L. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Esposito, John L. Islam and Politics (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1998).

Esposito, John L. The Islamic threat: Myth or reality? (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

Esposito, John L. Voices of Resurgent Islam (Oxford University Press, 1983).

Esposito, John L., and Emad El-Din Shahin. The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics (Oxford University Press, 2013).

Esposito, John L., and John Obert Voll. Makers of Contemporary Islam (Oxford University Press, 2001).

Euben, Roxanne L. Enemy in the Mirror: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Limits of Modern Rationalism: A Work of Comparative Political Theory (Princeton University Press, 1999).

Euben, Roxanne Leslie, and Muhammad Qasim Zaman. Princeton readings in Islamist thought: texts and contexts from al-Banna to Bin Laden (Princeton University Press, 2009).

Feldman, Noah. After Jihad: America and the struggle for Islamic democracy (Macmillan, 2007).

Feldman, Noah. The fall and rise of the Islamic state (Princeton University Press, 2012).

Filali-Ansari, A. “Muslims and Democracy.” Islam and Democracy in the Middle East. Eds. Larry Diamond, Marc F. Plattner, and Daniel Brumberg. (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. 193-207).

Fred, Dallmayr. Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices (New York: Palgrave, 2002).

Freely, John. Light from the East: How the Science of Medieval Islam Helped to Shape the Western World (London: IB Tauris, 2015).
Geertz, Clifford. Islam observed: Religious development in Morocco and Indonesia. Vol. 37. University of Chicago Press, 1971.

Ghonim, Wael. Revolution 2.0: The Power of the People is Greater Than the People in Power (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2012).

Gunning, Jeroen, and Ilan Zvi. Baron. Why Occupy a Square?: People, Protests and Movements in the Egyptian Revolution (New York: Oxford UP, 2013).

Jahanbakhsh, Forough. Islam, democracy and religious modernism in Iran, 1953-2000: from Bāzargān to Soroush. Vol. 77. (Brill, 2001).

Kadivar, Mohsen. “Human rights and intellectual Islam.” New directions in Islamic thought: Exploring reform and Muslim tradition. Eds. Lena Larsen & Christian Moe. (London: IB Tauris, 2009: 47-73).

Kadivar, Mohsen. “‎“Freedom of Religion and Belief in Islam.” The new voices of Islam: Rethinking politics and modernity: A reader.  Ed. Mehran Kamrava (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. 68-83).

Kadivar, Mohsen. “The Principles of Compatibility of Islam and Modernity.” International Symposium International “Islam, Society, Modernity”, Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Religion and Laicity (Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. 2004).

Kamali, Masoud. Multiple Modernities, Civil society and Islam: The case of Iran and Turkey (Liverpool University Press, 2006).

Kamrava, Mehran. New Voices of Islam: Reforming Politics and Modernity-A Reader (London: IB Tauris, 2006).

Khan, MA Muqtedar. Islamic democratic discourse: theory, debates, and philosophical perspectives (Lexington Books, 2006).

Kurzman, Charles. Liberal Islam: a source book (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Haas, Mark L. The Arab Spring: change and resistance in the Middle East (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2013).

Haddad, Bassam. The dawn of the Arab uprisings: end of an old order? (London: Pluto Press, 2012).

Haerens, Margaret. The Arab Spring (Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013).

Hallaq, Wael B. The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and Modernity’s Moral Predicament (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013).

Halliday, Fred. “Islamophobia reconsidered’.” Islam encountering globalization. Ed. Ali Mohammadi. (NY: Routledge, 2002).

Hashemi, Nader and Postal, Danny. eds. The Syria Dilemma  (A Boston Review book, 2013).

Hashemi, Nader and Postal, Danny. eds. The People Reloaded: The Green Movement and the Struggle for Iran’s Future (Brooklyn: Melville House, 2010).

Hashemi, Nader. Islam, secularism, and liberal democracy: Toward a democratic theory for Muslim societies (Oxford University Press, 2009).

Hunter, Shireen. Reformist voices of Islam: mediating Islam and modernity (Routledge, 2014).

Joya, Angela. The Arab revolts against neoliberalism (Toronto: Centre for Social Justice, 2011).

Khosrokhavar, Farhad. The Arab Revolutions that Shook the World (Paradigm Publishers, 2012).

Korany, Bahgat. Arab spring in Egypt: revolution and beyond (Cairo; New York: American University in Cairo Press, c2012).

Laremont, Ricardo R. ed. Revolution, Revolt and Reform in North Africa: The Arab Spring and Beyond (Routledge 2014).

Lewisohn, Leonard. Hafiz and the Religion of Love in Classical Persian Poetry (London: IB Tauris, 2010).

Lockman, Zachary. Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism (Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Lynch, Marc. The Arab uprising: the unfinished revolutions of the new Middle East (New York: Public Affairs, c2012).

Mahdavi, Mojtaba and W. Andy Knight. Eds. Towards ‘the dignity of difference?’ neither ‘end of history’ nor ‘clash of civilizations (Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2012).

Mahdavi, Mojtaba. “Ayatollah Khomeini.” The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. Eds. John Esposito and Emad El-Din Shahin. (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2013. 180-201).

Mahmoud, Mohamed. “Mahmud Muhammad taha’s second message of Islam and his modernist project.” Eds. Islam and Modernity; Muslim Intellectuals Respond. John Cooper, Ronald Nettler, and Mohamed Mahmoud (London; New York: I. B. Tauris, 2000).

Mayer, Ann Elizabeth. Islam and Human Rights: Tradition and Politics. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2013).

McMurray, David A. and Ufheil-Somers, Amanda. eds. The Arab Revolts: Dispatches on Militant Democracy in the Middle East (Indiana University Press, 2013).

Mernissi, Fatima. Islam and democracy: Fear of the modern world (Basic Books, 2009).

Mernissi, Fatima. The New Voices of Islam: Rethinking Politics and Modernity-A Reader. Ed. Mehran Kamrava (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. 205-211).

Mernissi, Fatima. “Palace fundamentalism and liberal democracy.” Eds. Emran Qureshi and Michael A. Sells. The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. 51-67).

Mernissi, Fatima. Women and Islam: A Historical and Theological Inquiry (Blackwell Publishers, 1993).

Mir-Hosseini, Ziba. “Classical Fiqh, Contemporary Ethics and Gender Justice.” New Directions in Islamic Thought: Exploring Reform and Muslim Tradition (London: IB Tauris, 2009. 77-88).

Mirsepassi, Ali. Intellectual discourse and the politics of modernization: Negotiating modernity in Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

Moaddel, Mansoor and Azadarmaki, Taqhi. “The Worldview of Islamic Publics: The Cases of Egypt, Iran, and Jordan.” Ed. Ronald Inglehart. Human Values and Social Change: Findings from the Values Surveys (Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2003. 69-89).

Mottahedeh, Roy P. “The Clash of Civilizations: An Islamicist’s Critique.” Eds. Emran Qureshi and Michael A. Sells. The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003).

Moussalli, Ahmad S. The Islamic quest for democracy, pluralism, and human rights (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001).

Naīm, Abd Allāh Amad. Islam and the secular state: Negotiating the future of Sharia (Harvard University Press, 2009).

Naīm, Abd Allāh Amad. Muslims and Global Justice (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011).

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Islamic Philosophy from its Origin to the Present: Philosophy in the Land of Prophecy (SUNY Press, 2006).
Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. International Relations of an Islamist Movement: The Case of the Jama’at-I Islami of Pakistan (Council on Foreign Relations, 1999).

Norris, Pippa, and Ronald Inglehart. Sacred and secular: Religion and politics worldwide (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

Owen, Roger. The Rise and Fall of Arab Presidents for Life (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012).

Rahman, Fazlur. Islam (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966).

Rahnema, Ali. An Islamic utopian: A political biography of Ali Shariati (London: IB Tauris, 2000).

Ramadan, Tariq. “The way (al-sharia) of Islam.” The new voices of Islam: Rethinking politics and modernity: A reader.  Ed. Mehran Kamrava (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. 68-83).

Ramadan, Tariq. Western Muslims and the future of Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

Sachedina, Abdulaziz A., and World International Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern. The Role Of Islam In Public Square: Guidance Or Governance? (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2006).

Sachedina, Abdulaziz. The Islamic roots of democratic pluralism (Oxford University Press, 2001).

Sachedina, Abdulaziz. “Ali Shariati: Ideologue of the Iranian Revolution.” Voices of Resurgent Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito‎. (New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. 191-214).

Sadiqi, Fatima and Ennaji, Moha eds. Women in the Middle East and North Africa: Agents of Change (Routledge, 2011).

Said, Edward W. Orientalism (London; New York: Penguin Books, 2003, c1978., 2003).

Sajoo, Amyn B., ed. Muslim Modernities: Expressions of the Civil Imagination (London: IB Tauris, 2008).

Sayyid, S. A Fundamental Fear: Eurocentrism and the Emergence Of Islamism (London; New York: Zed, 1997).

Soroush, Abdol-Karim. “Reason Freedom, and Democracy in Islam.” The New Voices of Islam: Rethinking Politics and Modernity-A Reader. Ed. Mehran Kamrava (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. 243-261).

Soroush, Abdol-Karim. “The changeable and the unchangeable.” New Directions in Islamic Thought: Exploring Reform and Muslim Tradition, ed. Kari Vogt et al. (London: IB Tauris, 2008: 9-15).

Soroush, Abdolkarim, Mahmoud Sadri, and Ahmad Sadri. Reason, Freedom, & Democracy in Islam: Essential Writings Of Abdolkarim Soroush (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Tamimi, Azzam, and John L. Esposito. Islam and secularism in the Middle East (NYU Press, 2000).

Tibi, Bassam. The challenge of fundamentalism: Political Islam and the new world disorder (Berkley: Univ of California Press, 2002).

Vahdat, Farzin. God and juggernaut: Iran’s intellectual encounter with modernity (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2002).

Vahdat, Farzin. Islamic Ethos and the Specter of Modernity (Anthem Press, 2015).

Van Antwerpen, Jonathan, Eduardo Mendieta, and Judith Butler. The Power of Religion In The Public Sphere (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011).

Volpi, Frédéric, ed. Political Islam: a critical reader (New York: Routledge, 2013).


Abou El Fadl, Khaled M. “The End of the Arab Spring, the Rise of ISIS and the Future of Political Islam.” Religion & Ethics. 23 Apr. 2015. <>.

Abou el Fadl, Khaled M. “The Perils of a ‘People’s Coup’” in The New York Times, July 7 2013. <>.

Abou El Fadl, Khaled. “Islam and the Challenge of Democracy: Can Individual Rights and Popular Sovereignty Take Root in Faith?.” Boston Review: A Political and Literary Forum (April/May 2003). Vol. 2. 2003.

Achcar, Gilbert. “Syria and the Arab Spring: An Interview With Gilbert Achcar”. Huffington post, May 23, 2014. <>.

Ahmad, Aijaz. “Islam, Islamism and the West.” Socialist Register 2008 (2008): 1.

Alexander, Anne. “ISIS and Counter-revolution: Towards a Marxist Analysis.” International Socialism,  5 Jan. 2015. <>.

Ali, Tariq. “A Total Mess: What is a Revolution?” Counterpunch, 04 September 2013.  <>.

Ali, Tariq . “On Libya, the Arab Spring and Syria,” Counterpunch, 03 November 2013. <>.

Amin, Samir. “Political Islam in the service of imperialism.” Monthly review – New York, 59.7 (2007): 1.

Asad, Talal and Çubukçu, Ayça. “Neither Heroes, Nor Villains: A Conversation with Talal Asad on Egypt After Morsi,” Jadaliyya, Jul 23 2013. <>.

Ayoob, Mohammed. “The Arab Spring: its Geostrategic Significance,” Middle east Policy, Vol. XIX, No. 3, Fall 2012, pp. 84-97. <>.

Bali, Asli and Rana, Aziz. “Why There is No Military Solution to the Syrian Conflict,” Jadaliyya, May 13, 2013. <>.

Bayat, Asef. “Revolution and Despair.” Mada Masr. 24 Jan. 2015. <>.

Bayat, Asef. “Revolutions in Bad Times,” New Left Review, March-April 2013. <>.

Bayat, Asef. “The Post-Islamist Revolutions.” Foreign Affairs. 26 Apr. 2011. <>.

Bayat, Asef. “Paradox of Arab Refo-lutions,” Jadaliyya, March 3, 2011 <>.

Bayat, Asef. “Egypt and the Post-Islamist Middle East,” Jadaliyya, Feb. 10, 2011. <>.

Bayat, Asef. “A wave for Life and Liberty: The Green Movement and Iran’s Incomplete Revolution,” Open Democracy, July 2009. <>.

Bayat, Asef. “Islamism and Social Movement Theory,” Third World Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 6, 2005, pp. 891-908.

Bayat, Asef. “Social Movements, Activism and Social Development in the Middle East,” United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Nov. 2000, 1-35 <$file/bayat.pdf>.

Bektas, Ali. The Flip-side of the Anti-Capitalist Coin: Istanbul Uprising, Counterpunch, June 05, 2013. <>.

Beinin, Joel. “Popular Social Movements and the Future of Egyptian Politics,” Middle East Report Online, March 2005. <>.

Benhabib, Seyla. “The Gezi Park Protests and the Future of Turkish Politics: An Interview with Benhabib, Seyla. “Dissent: A Quarterly of Politics and Culture, June 15, 2013. <>.

Berman, Sheri. “Marx’s Lesson for the Muslim Brothers,” The New York Times, August 10, 2013. <>.

Bielefeldt, Heiner. “‘Western’ versus ‘Islamic’ Human Rights Conceptions?: A Critique of Cultural Essentialism in the Discussion on Human Rights.” Political Theory (2000): 90-121.

Brown, Nathan J. After the Egyptian Coup, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, July 2013, <>.

Cammett, Melani and Diwan, Ishac. “Toward a Political Economy of the Arab Uprisings,” Jadaliyya, Dec 26-27 2013.
Part I:  <>.
Part II: <>.

Casanova, José. “Civil society and religion: retrospective reflections on Catholicism and prospective reflections on Islam.” Social Research (2001): 1041-1080.

Cole, Juan. “The Fall of Mosul and the False Promises of Modern History,” Informed Comment, June 11, 2014. <>.

Cole, June. The Arab millennials will be back: Three ways the youth rebellions are still shaping the Middle East,” Le Monde diplomatique, 29 JUNE 2014. <>.

Dabashi, Hamid. “Revolutions without Borders.” Alaraby. 6 Apr. 2015. <>.

El-Hamalawy, Hossam. ”Comrades and Brothers,” Middle East Report <>.

El-Ghobashy, Mona. “The Praxis of the Egyptian Revolution” Middle East Research and Information Project Vol. 258, Spring 2011: <>.

Esposito , John L. “on the Military Coup in Egypt,” Islamistgate – Tuesday 01/October/2013 <>.

Esposito, John L., and Faisal Kattan. “Generalising about the Arab Spring Is Playing with Fire.” Middle East Eye. 24 Jan. 2015. <>.

Falk, Richard. “What Can be Done about Syria? Tragedy and Impotence”, Global Justice in the 21st Century. 31 May 2013. <>.

Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock. Mississippi Review 27.3 (1999): 129-50. Print.

Gezi, Nilüfer Göle: “Anatomy of Public Square Movement,’ Today’s Zaman, -07 June 2013. <>.

Ghamari-Tabrizi, Behrooz. “Contentious Public Religion: Two Conceptions of Islam in Revolutionary Iran Ali Shariati and Abdolkarim Soroush.” International Sociology 19.4 (2004): 504-523.

Goldstone, Jack A. “Toward a Fourth Generation of Revolutionary Theory,” Annual Review of Political Science, 2001, 4, pp. 139-187.

Habermas, Jurgen. “Religion in the public sphere”, Lecture presented at the Holberg Prize Seminar, 29 Nov. 2005.

Hallaq, Wael. “New Texts Out Now: Wael Hallaq, The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and Modernity’s Moral Predicament.” Jadaliyya (September 18, 2013).

Harris, Kevan . “The Brokered Exuberance of The Middle Class: An Ethnographic Analysis of   Iran’s 2009 Green Movement,” Mobilization: An International Journal, 2012, 17(4): 435-455.

Harvey, David. “On Why Struggles over Urban Space Matter: An Interview with David Harvey,”Jadaliyya, November 15, 2013. <>.

Holmes, Amy Austin. “There are Weeks When Decades Happen: Structure And Strategy in the Egyptian Revolution,”Mobilization: An International Journal, 2012, 17(4): 391-410.

Hunter, Shireen T. “Iraq’s Disintegration Would be Contagious and Destabilizing,” Lobelog Foreign Policy, July 14, 2014. <>.

Iğsız, Aslı. “Brand Turkey and the Gezi Protests: Authoritarianism. Law, and Neoliberalism,” Jadaliyya, July 12-13 2013.
Part I:
Part II:

Kamrava, Mehran. “The Arab Spring and the Saudi-Led Counterrevolution,” Orbis, Winter 2012, pp. 96-104. <>.

Kurzman, Charles. “The Arab Spring Uncoiled,” Mobilization: An International Journal, 2012, 17(4): 377-390.

Leenders, Reinoud. “Collective Action and Mobilization In Dar’a: An Anatomy of The Onset of Syria’s Popular Uprising,” Mobilization: An International Journal, 2012, 17(4): 419-434.

Mahdavi, Mojtaba. Guest Editor. “Contemporary Social Movements in the MiddleEast and Beyond.” Sociology of Islam. Vol. 2, Issue 3-4, (2014).

Mahdavi, Mojtaba. “One bed and two dreams? Contentious public religion in the discourses of Ayatollah Khomeini and Ali Shariati.” Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 43.1 (2014): 25-52.

Mahdavi, Mojtaba.”Introduction: East Meets the West? The Unfinished Project of Contemporary Social Movements in the MiddleEast and Beyond.” Sociology of Islam. Vol. 2, Issue 3-4 (2014), 103-110.

Mahdavi, Mojtaba. “Muslims and Modernities: From Islamism to Post-Islamism?.” Religious Studies and Theology 32.1 (2013): 57-71.

Mahdavi, Mojtaba. “Post-Islamist Trends in Postrevolutionary Iran,” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Volume 31, Number 1 (2011), 94-109.

Majd, Hooman. “Think again: Iran’s Green Movement; it’s a civil rights movement, not a revolution,” Foreign Policy, January 6, 2010. <>.

Mamdani, Mahmood. “Libya: Politics of humanitarian intervention,” Aljazeera, March 31, 2011. Available at:  <>.

Manoochehri, Abbas. “Critical Religious Reason: Ali Shari’ati on Religion, Philosophy and Emancipation.” Polylog: Forum for Intercultural Philosophy. Vol. 4. 2003.

Moghadam, Valentine M. “Islamic feminism and its discontents: Toward a resolution of the debate.” Signs 40.1 (2014).

Naim, Abd Allah Ahmad. “The Interdependence of Religion, Secularism, and Human Rights: Prospects for Islamic Societies.” Common Knowledge 11.1 (2005): 56-80.

Nomani, Farhad and Behdad, Sohrab. “Labor Rights and the Democracy Movement in Iran: Building a Social Democracy,” Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, Vol. 10, Issue 4, 2012, pp. 212-230. <>.

Prashad, Vijay. “How Islamic State Grew Out of U.S Invasion of Iraq, Destruction of Nation,” Democracy Now, August 25, 2014. <>.

Prashad, Vijay .“ Libya in Chaos: Vijay Prashad on Rise of Islamist Militias & Bloody Legacy of 2011 U.S. Intervention,” Democracy NowAugust 25, 2014. <>.

Prashad, Vijay. “The Geopolitics of the Islamic State,” The Hindu, July 3, 2014 <>.

Sadeghi, Fatemeh. “Why We Say No to Compulsory Hijab?”, July 2009. <>.

Said, Edward W. “The Clash Of Ignorance.” Nation 273.12 (2001): 11-13.

Sen, Amartya. “Democracy and Its Global Roots.” New Republic (2003): 29. <>.

Stepan, Alfred C. “Religion, democracy, and the” Twin Tolerations”.” Journal of democracy 11.4 (2000): 37-57.

Tugal, Cihan. “Towards the End of a Dream? The Erdogan-Gulen Fallout and Islamic Liberalism’s Descent,” Jadaliyya, December 22 2013.  <>.

Vahdat, Farzin. “Religious modernity in Iran: Dilemmas of Islamic democracy in the discourse of Mohammad Khatami.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 25.3 (2005): 650-664.

Wright, Robin B. “Two visions of reformation.” Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996): 64-75.

Zeid, Abu Nasr Hamed. “Heaven, Which Way?.” Al-Ahram (2002): 12-18.